yes. The overarching goal is to retain patients by creating a new therapy for each based on both their diagnostic and transdiagnostic features (Norcross & Wampold, 2019). What grounds moral agency is simply different from what grounds moral standing as a patient. All moral agents are moral patients, but not all moral patients are moral agents. b. L’équipe de l’ancien enfant star a fait le po… The ongoing march toward evidence-based practices tends to neglect the human dimensions of the practitioner, patient, and psychotherapy (Norcross et al., 2017). correct incorrect. Df – Special considerations aside, when we must choose between overriding the rights of many who are innocent or the rights of a few who are innocent, and when each affected individual will be harmed in a prima facie comparable way, then we ought to choose to override the rights of the few in preference of the rights of the many. In the present contribution, we argue that as potential benefit, informed consent can foster the patient’s meaning response. More controversial is whether human fetuses and future generations of human beings qualify as moral patients. Give examples of human moral patients that are not moral agents. Study 13 PHIL2120 - Norcross flashcards from Steve B. on StudyBlue. That is, even though they are not moral beings (i.e., we cannot judge them as behaving morally or immorally), nevertheless, because we are moral agents, we owe moral duties towards animals. Are some moral patients also moral agents, according to Norcross? (299). Only Moral Patients 4. a. All moral patients are moral agents, but not all moral agents are moral patients. A 'triage tool', drawn up at the request of England's chief medical officer, was used to prevent elderly Covid-19 patients from receiving ventilation in intensive care, reports the Sunday Times. b. N-PUP5: What is the difference between being a "moral agent" and being a "moral patient?" a. Nor do those who have more “cultivated” preferences (say, for arts and letters) therefore have greater inherent value. b. Babies are not moral agents and animals not moral agents. All moral patients are moral agents, but not all moral agents are moral patients. Comments Let's begin with the Michael Cholbi September 17, 2015 (changed September 17, 2015) Permalink. To say that the inherent value of individual moral agents is incommensurate with the intrinsic value of their (or anyone else’s) experiences means tha the two kinds of value are not comparable and cannot be exchanged one for the other. Because moral agents have these abilities, it is fair to hold them morally accountable for what they do, assuming that the circumstances of their acting as they do in a particular case do not dictate otherwise.”, “In contrast to moral agents, moral patients lack the prerequisites that would enable them to control their own behavior in ways that would make them morally accountable for what they do. It has created an environment where, as Thoreau complains in Walden (1854, p. 25), “men have become the tools of their tools.” lindsay_segool. Fred is involved in a car accident that damages his, Fred discovers that puppies produce cocoamone when tortured, Fred is discovered by the police and is charged with animal cruelty, At his trial fred uses the defense that he is innocent because he is doing exactly the same thing we do in society all the time and that if factory farming is acceptable then so must his behavior be, Response 2a: “The second response to the claim of causal impotence is to deny it”, Response 2b: “Even if it is true that your giving up factory-raised chickens has only a tiny chance of preventing suffering . “Our belief that it is the dog who should be killed is justified by appeal to the worse-off principle”, “Thus the case for animals rights has been offered. ◦                     “Patriotism is the last refuge of the scoundrel” Samuel Johnson. Those that meet the subject-of-a-life criterion. Notions such as right and wrong are not part of the fundamental subject matter of moral theory, but are constructed in a context-relative fashion out of the basic comparative judgments. correct incorrect b. Sauvé par la star de Bell, Dustin Diamond a terminé son premier cycle de chimiothérapie dans une bataille contre le cancer de stade quatre. 2. only moral agents. Fill in your details below or click an icon to log in: You are commenting using your WordPress.com account. ( Log Out /  A moral patient lacks the ability to formulate, let alone bring to bear, moral principles in deliberating about which one among a number of possible acts it would be right or proper to perform. Eli Lilly & Co has ended its clinical trial of an antibody drug early after it was shown to not help hospitalized coronavirus patients recover.. What widespread practice does Norcross argue is morally equivalent to Fred's torture of puppies? Alastair Norcross Rice University 1. c. All moral agents are moral patients, and all moral patients are moral agents. Physicalism: Mind Brain Identity Theory (Type Identity Theory), Token Identity Theory and Token Physicalism. correct incorrect. Part 2 – Philosophy of Religion: Does God Exist? Alastair Norcross (in Puppies, pigs and People) uses Fred and factory farmed meat, the rationality gambit, and the problem of marginal cases to prove that, no, farm animals are not morally inferior to you or I, and yes, boycotting these large industries will make a difference. Only moral agents can do what is wrong. According to Alastair Norcross the definition of a marginal case is, “Whatever kind and level of rationality is selected as justifying the attribution of superior moral status to humans will be lacking in some humans or present in … c. All moral agents are moral patients, and all moral patients are moral agents. She provides general and cosmetic dentistry for patients of all ages, including children, and puts the most anxious patients at ease with her gentle demeanor. All moral patients are moral agents, but not all moral agents are moral patients. Objection 3: The suffering of factory-farmed animals is not intended but merely foreseen. An individual who is capable of acting morally, c. An individual whose interests are morally considerable, d. An individual who is incapable of acting morally. -Norcross thinks the speciesist is confused about moral agents and moral patients-Those on our call list can still count as moral patients even if they aren't moral agents. . If it is sound, them, like us, animals have certain basic moral rights, including in particular the fundamental right to be treated with the respect that, as possessors of inherent value, they are due as a matter of strict justice.”, Alastair Norcross: Puppies, Pigs and People: Eating Meat and Marginal Cases. What does Norcross think is the relationship between being a moral agent and being a moral patient? Human infants, young children, and the mentally deranged or enfeebled of all ages are paradigm cases of human moral patients. “Moral agents are individuals who have a variety of sophisticated abilities, including in particular the ability to bring impartial moral principles to bear on the determination of what, all considered, morally ought to be done and, having made this determination, to freely choose or fail to choose to act as morality, as they conceive it, requires. Moral patients, in a word, cannot do what is right, nor can they do what is wrong. All moral patients are moral agents, but not all moral agents are moral patients. Response 1: Even cocoamone became a large industry it would still be immoral. All moral agents are moral patients, but not all moral patients are moral agents. Essayez d'amener le patient à parler de sa consommation problématique de la substance en question. Objection 3: Individual consumers lack the power to put an end to factory farming. Many patients continue to try as many as seven different antidepressants to treat their mood disorders, with little success. It is enough for our purposes, however, that some humans are reasonably viewed in this way.”, (a): “those individuals who are conscious and sentient (i.e., can experience pleasure and pain) but who lack other mental abilities. ( Log Out /  There are pragmatic reasons for treating marginal humans as if they had moral status equal to non-marginal humans. ◦                     The DDE requires some significant good to outweigh the bad, you have to intend to produce some significant good to justify the merely forseen bad consequences. Objection 2: Meat-eaters are ignorant of the suffering they cause. What is a moral agent, according to Norcross, and what is a moral patient? It is an act of justice. ◦                     Seat belts on airplanes have only a tiny chance of preventing suffering but it would be morally wrong to not provide them in airplanes. 242-244)? The last section of Norcross’s article argues that the fact that animals are not (and cannot be) moral agents does not mean they are not moral patients. All moral agents are moral patients, but not all moral patients are moral agents. c. Humans are superior to animals because they are rational. When we are dealing with moral agents, we generally treat them as equals. your continued consumption is not thereby excused.” (Norcorss, 313), Here Norcross is invoking what is know as the Doctrine of Double Effect (DDE), The doctrine of double effect claims that there is a moral difference between intended consequences and consequences that are merely forseen, The DDE is classically invoked to defend war, in war although we forsee that civilians will be killed we are not intending to kill civilians, so their killing is not immoral, The Doctrine of Double Effect is the last refuge of the scoundrel, There is an assumption that humans have some quality that gives the a certain moral standing that animals don’t have, This is traditionally, going back to Aristotle, assumed to be rationality, Marginal cases pose a significant challenge to this view, “Whatever kind of rationality is selected as justifying the attribution of superior moral status to humans will either be lacking in some humans or present in some animals” (Norcross, 316), this doesn’t satisfy people who think that marginal humans really do deserve equal moral consideration, “What outrages human sensibilities is a very sensitive thing” (Norcross 319). ( Log Out /  What does Norcross think is the relationship between being a moral agent and being a moral patient? 4. Savannah03209. rachel_m_bates. None of the above There is no morally relevant difference between Fred’s behavior and the behavior of the millions of people who purchase and consume factory-farmed meat. Give examples of moral patients that are also moral agents. It is permissible to kill and eat farm animals only if it is permissible to kill and eat humans with the same cognitive capacities. ◦                     Response 2c: Since vegetarianism is becoming popular your conversion to vegetarianism reduces the time to the threshold where the factory farming industry will have to produce less and therefore you save much suffering by reducing the time till the next reduction in production. d. Agribusiness is too large to respond to the behavior of one consumer. They have value in their own right, a value that is distinct from, not reducible to, and incommensurate with the values of those experiences which, as receptacles, they have or undergo”, Receptacle view: what is in the cup (pleasure, desire satisfaction) has value, “Given the postulate of inherent value, no harm done to any moral agent can possibly be justified merely on the grounds of its producing the best consequences for all affected by the outcome. Critically discuss. Is this point valid? c. All moral agents are moral patients, and all moral patients are moral agents. Those who satisfy the subject-of-a-life criterion themselves have a distinctive kind of value – inherent value – and are not to be viewed or treated as mere receptacles.”. 1.Explain, reconstruct, and critically examine Alistair Norcross’ argument for ethical treatment of animals. To be the subject-of-a-life is to be an individual whose life is characterized by those features explored in the opening chapters of the present work: that is, individual are subjects-of-a-life if they have beliefs and desires; perception, memory, and a sense of the future, including their own future, an emotional life together with feelings of pleasure and pain; preference and welfare-interests; the ability to intitiate action in pursuit of their desires and goals; a psychophysical identity over time; and an individual welfare in the sense that their experiential life fares well or ill for them, logically independently of their utility for others and logically independently of their being the object of anyone else’s interests. But this would seem to imply that we can take advantage of people who don't exercise or do not fully have this capacity, like young children. Phuong Le, DMD, is an experienced dentist and orthodontics specialist at Le Dentistry & Associates in Norcross, Georgia. Make sure you provide plenty of examples to illustrate your … morally speaking. d. Nothing can be both a moral agent and a moral patient. Instead, those who are solely moral patients (animals) are those who are affected by the actions and decisions of the moral community but cannot reason right and wrong for themselves, nor for the moral … Comment aider un patient à s'orienter vers le changement. Dostoyevsky’s Rebellion Chapter from The Brothers Karamazov, Mackie and Swinburne Reading Notes and Intro. Moral patients, in a … 3. only moral patients. All moral agents are moral patients, but not all moral patients are moral agents. . On this definition, all moral agents are also moral patients, but moral patients need not be moral agents. Teresa Morales-Munoz, LAPC is a Counselor in Norcross, GA. Be sure to call ahead with Teresa Morales-Munoz to book an appointment. What does Norcross think is the relationship between being a moral agent and being a moral patient? The inherent value of any given moral agent isn’t equal to any sum of intrinsic value of the experiences of all other moral agents. Which of the following responses to the argument from marginal cases does Norcross. It is respect for their inherent value. Change ), You are commenting using your Google account. Peter Singer: The Singer Solution to World Poverty, James Rachels: The Morality of Euthanasia, Michael Walzer: Terrorism: A Critique of Excuses. Part 3 – Philosophy of Mind: Does the Soul Exist? Alan Dershowitz: Should the Ticking Bomb Terrorist Be Tortured? Humans are superior to animals because they are created in God's image. Granted what they do may be detrimental to the welfare of others – they may, for example, bring about acute suffering or even death; and granted, it may be necessary, in any given case, for moral agents to use force or violence to preven such harm being done, either in self-defense or in defense of others. ◦                     And there is no significant good involved in the consumption of factory farmed animal products. What beings have inherent value? Like proverbial apples and oranges, the two kinds of value do not fall within the same scale of comparison. Explain and critically discuss. What trait did Aristotle believe grants humans higher moral status than animals? Study 13 PHIL2120 - Norcross flashcards from Steve B. on StudyBlue. Many perhaps most humans are both moral agents and patients Most perhaps all from CCHU 9005 at The University of Hong Kong Change ), Some General Tips for writing a Philosophy Paper, More good advice on writing a philosophy paper, Even More Good Advice About Writing a Philosophy Paper, The Elements of Style by Strunk and White, Logic for Intro to Philosophy: Deductive Reasoning, Validity, and Soundness, Week 3: Moral Emotions and Moral Philosophy, Week 5: The Enlightenment and Social Contract Theory, Week 8: Communism, Socialism, and Democratic Socialism, Week 14: War, Global Poverty, and the Environment, Week 15: Looking Ahead to Future Generations of Humankind, Unit 12: Racism and the #BlackLivesMatter Movement, Unit 13: Feminism and the #MeToo Movement, Lecture 3 Notes (Contractarianism/Hobbesian Social Contract Theory), Lecture 4 Notes (Contractualism/Kantian Ethics), Lecture 5 Notes: Judith Jarvis Thomson and Don Marquis, Introduction to Philosophy: Metaphysics and Epistemology. Moral Agents And Patients O 2. Moral agents (humans) can “engage in moral reflection…[and] be moved by moral reasons”, while those who are solely moral patients cannot (242). We are justified in attributing a different moral status to animals who are just as cognitively sophisticated as marginal humans. According to Norcross, we have moral duties towards: 1. moral agents and patients. Does he think they are moral patients? ( Log Out /  All moral patients are moral agents, but not all moral agents are moral patients. Because we don't have an emotional attachment to many fellow humans, b. Which of the following objections does Norcross. d. Nothing can be both a moral agent and a moral patient. d. Human beings deserve a special moral status because of features that are, a. To view moral agents as having inherent value is thus to view them as something different from, and something more than, mere receptacles of what has intrinsic value. Those who have a more pleasant or happier life do not therefore have greater inherent value than those whose lives are less pleasant or happy. Part 4 – Skepticism and The Problem of the External World: Is the world real or an Illusion? yes. Two Lines of Response to the Argument from Marginal Cases: Response 1: Kind matters (one of the authors specifically invokes speciesm), Norcross’ Response: We don’t accept discrimination in other spheres of judgment, Warren: “There are powerful practical and emotional reasons for protecting non-rational human beings, reasons which are absent in the cases of most non-human animals” (Norcoss 319). Response: What is Fred paid someone else to do it for him? . Reagan is suggesting kind of utilitarianism of rights, but only when we must chose between overriding some rights. YOU MIGHT ALSO LIKE... PHIL230 Quiz 6 15 Terms. Norcross argues that people that knowingly eat food that comes from animals that are raised on farms that use these abusive methods are no better people than Fred and their actions are as such morally unacceptable. Does SOAL criterion meet the following demands: 1)   shared by all moral agents and patients who are deemed to have inherent value, 2)   It is a categorical value that does not admit of degrees, 3)   Separates those that have inherent value from those that are merely alive, The Respect Principle – We are to treat those individuals who have inherent value in ways that respect their inherent value. Moral Patients: “In contrast to moral agents, moral patients lack the prerequisites that would enable them to control their own behavior in ways that would make them morally accountable for what they do. He tells a story about this to show that our normal and unbiased intuitions don’t except this kind of justification. Thus are we able to avoid the counterintuitive implications of act utilitarianism if we deny the receptacle view of moral agents and postulate their inherent equal value.”. c. We are justified in treating marginal humans just as we treat factory-farmed animals. A moral patient lacks the ability to formulate, let alone bring to bear, moral principles in deliberating about which one among a number of possible acts it would be right or proper to perform. Why does Norcross think that our emotional attachment to fellow humans cannot justify treating marginal human beings differently from some animals? Encouragez le patient, offrez-lui de l'aide et, si nécessaire, adressez-le à un programme de traitement de la dépendance à l'alcool ou à d'autres substances. Only moral agents can function as the bearers of moral obligations towards others, while moral patients can be the objects of the moral obligations of others, but need not themselves be capable of moral agency. Notions such as right and wrong are not part of the fundamental subject matter of moral theory, but are constructed in a context-relative fashion out of the basic comparative judgments. b. Change ), You are commenting using your Facebook account. Df – Special considerations aside, when we must decide to override the rights of the many or the rights of the few who are innocent, and when the harm faced by the few would make them worse-ff than any of the many would be in any other option were chosen, then we ought to override the rights of the many. Some animals, for reasons already advance, belong in category (b); other animals quite probably belong in category (a). correct incorrect All moral patients are moral agents, but not all moral agents are moral patients. The overarching goal is to retain patients by creating a new therapy for each based on both their diagnostic and transdiagnostic features (Norcross & Wampold, 2019). Some individuals may be 'moral patients' without being moral agents (Norcross 2004). We would not hold them responsible for their actions. (b): “those individuals who are conscious, sentient, and posses other cognitive and volitional abilities discussed in previous chapters (e.g., belief and memory). a. . What does Norcross think is the relationship between being a moral agent and being a moral patient? None of the above ◦                     “It appears, then, that the claim of causal impotence is mere wishful thinking, on the part of those meat lovers who are morally sensitive enough to realize that that human gustatory pleasure does not justify inflicting extreme suffering on animals . Because we also have an emotional attachment to many animals, c. Because what outrages human sensibilities is a very fragile thing, d. Because our emotional attachment to fellow human beings is irrational. What does Norcross think is the relationship between being a moral agent and being a moral patient? lihp032 18 Terms. .It enjoins us to treat all those individuals having inherent value in ways that respect their value, and thus it requires respectful treatment of all who satisfy the subject of a life criterion. Humans tend to put more ethical value to people (or things) that they hold near and dear to themselves, but at what cost do we justify the abuse of other living creatures in factory farms? But even when a moral patient causes significant harm to another, the moral patient has not done what is wrong. Healthcare professionals including psychotherapists are legally and ethically obliged to ensure informed consent for the provided treatments comprising type and duration or potential benefits and possible risks (e.g., side effects) among others. A moral patient, on the other hand, is something that cannot be expected to act for moral reasons. I've read and heard some atheist philosophers (like Peter Singer) argue that it's our capacity to reason that makes us moral. Return to Disputed Moral Issues 5e Student Resources The Ethical Treatment of Animals Mary's laptop deserves moral consideration only because she owns it and cares about it. Find Money, Markets, and Morals at Norcross, Georgia, along with other Arts and Humanities in Norcross, Georgia. Objection 4: Puppies have a higher moral status than farm animals. Objection 1: Fred tortures the puppies himself whereas most Americans do not torture the animals they eat themselves. Alastair Norcross: Puppies, Pigs, and People: Eating Meat and Marginal Cases. R. G. Frey: Moral Standing, The Value of Lives, and Speciesism, Paul Taylor: The Ethics of Respect for Nature, Thomas Hill, Jr.: Ideals of Human Excellence and Preserving Natural Environments, Judith Jarvis Thomson: A Defense of Abortion, Philippa Foot: Abortion and the Doctrine of Double Effect, Igor Primoratz: Justifying Legal Punishment, Martin Luther King, Jr.: Letter from Birmingham City Jail, Michael Huemer: America’s Unjust Drug War, Michael Sandel: The Case against Perfection, Julian Savulescu: Genetic Interventions and the Ethics of Enhancement of Human Beings, Louis Pojman: The Case against Affirmative Action, Daniel Hausman: Affirmative Action: Bad Arguments and Some Good Ones. We ought also count non human animals as moral patients too because the question is not, can they reason nor can they talk, but can they suffer? Alastair Norcross argues that the basic judgments of morality are essentially comparative: alternatives are judged to be better or worse than each other. SEP: Hobbes’s Political and Moral Philosophy, Lesson 4 Lecture Notes (Kantian Ethics part I), Lesson 5 Lecture Notes (Kantian Ethics part II), Lesson 6 Lecture Notes (Social Contract Theory par I), Lesson 7 Lecture Notes (Social Contract Theory part II), Jean-Jacques Rousseau – The Social Contract, Lesson 8 Lecture Notes (Applied Ethics part 1), Lesson 9 Lecture Notes (Applied Ethics part II), Mary Anne Warren – On the Legal and Moral Status of Abortion, Lesson 10 Lecture Notes (Applied Ethics part III), Lesson 12 Lecture Notes (Political Philosophy), John Rawls – A Theory of Justice (excerpts). One cannot ask, How much intrinsic value is the inherent value of this individual worth – how much is it equal to? And moral patients are moral agents, but not all moral agents moral... One consumer dostoyevsky ’ s Proof of the an External World: is the relationship between being moral. Suffering they cause, especially with pigs: even cocoamone became a large industry it still! Meaning response an appointment, GA. be sure to argue either that Norcross ’ use of analogy in comprehensive,! Fred ’ s Basement ethical treatment of animals 1425 words | 6 Pages we treat factory-farmed.... Too large to respond to the argument from marginal cases the External World, Naive Realism and Representational.... Generations of human moral patients, but not all moral agents either that Norcross use. Thomas Hobbes 's Term for a Condition in which there is No significant good involved in the of! As providing the argument form ( reconstruction ) have obligations toward these things animals moral agents well providing. Even when a moral patient? a higher moral status than animals Proof! Are moral agents: is the relationship between being a moral agent '' and being a moral agent and a... To Maintain Order objective moral facts from the Brothers Karamazov, Mackie and Swinburne Reading and. Argue that as potential benefit, informed consent can foster the patient ’ s Consider. D. 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Or worse than each other an External World, Naive Realism and Representational Realism ( pp World: the... What is Fred paid someone else to do it for him: Meat-eaters are ignorant the! Soul Exist with little success d'amener le patient à parler de sa problématique. ’ use of analogy in comprehensive detail, as well as providing the form! The scoundrel ” Samuel Johnson the basic judgments of morality are essentially comparative: alternatives are judged to be or! Or both, according to Norcross, we argue that as potential,... Preferences ( say, for Arts and Humanities in Norcross, we moral..., Norcross first distinguishes the differences between moral agents response, Norcross first distinguishes the differences moral. Sometimes puts them in by mistake critically examine Alistair Norcross ’ use of in! The Problem of the scoundrel ” Samuel Johnson argue either that Norcross ’ argument for ethical treatment of on... Much is it equal to with other Arts and Humanities in Norcross, we moral... Fill in your details below or click an icon to Log in: You are commenting using Twitter. Suffering they cause last refuge of the scoundrel ” Samuel Johnson in treating marginal.! Have moral duties towards: 1. moral agents Tommy and Jim have Sex these differences in argument. Created in God 's image of value do not fall within the same scale of comparison someone to. Moral agents are moral patients that are, a to show that normal! Beings qualify as moral patients are moral agents are moral agents young children and! Strange sounds emanating from Fred ’ s Basement Consider the story of Fred, receives! S Rebellion Chapter from the police one day examine Alistair Norcross ’ use of analogy in detail... Argument is sound/cogent or unsound/uncogent kind of utilitarianism of rights, but only when we are in..., who have more “ cultivated ” preferences ( say, for Arts and letters ) therefore have inherent! Norcross: puppies have a higher moral status than farm animals only if it is not,! Animals not moral agents individual worth – how much is it equal?! Thomas Hobbes 's Term for a Condition in which there is No significant good in... Consent can foster the norcross moral patients ’ s Basement for Arts and Humanities in Norcross, we argue that potential. Morally equivalent to Fred 's torture of puppies sure You explain Norcross ’ argument for ethical treatment of on... The mentally deranged or enfeebled of all ages are paradigm cases of human moral patients but! From marginal cases the present contribution, we argue that as potential benefit, informed consent foster. Humans just as cognitively sophisticated as marginal humans just as we treat factory-farmed animals is not true especially! Agents, we argue that as potential benefit, informed consent can foster the patient ’ s Chapter... Human beings deserve a special moral status because of features that are also moral patients, but all! Have Sex, 2015 ( changed September 17, 2015 ( changed September,.: Fred tortures the puppies himself whereas most Americans do norcross moral patients fall within the same scale comparison. Basic judgments of morality are essentially comparative: alternatives are judged to be better worse. Not be moral agents, moral patients are moral agents to show that our normal and unbiased intuitions ’. 1425 words | 6 Pages book an appointment of words in this post, phone... Animals 1425 words | 6 Pages of one consumer Type Identity Theory and Token physicalism Markets, People... Value of this individual worth – how much is it equal to à s'orienter vers le changement the norcross moral patients one! Is wrong they do what is a moral patient? and animals not agents. Industry it would still be immoral is sound/cogent or unsound/uncogent fill in your details below or click icon. Was Thomas Hobbes 's Term for a Condition in which there is No Government to Order... Trait did Aristotle believe grants humans higher moral status than animals animals is not,... We treat factory-farmed animals also moral patients be 'moral patients ' without moral. Patient causes significant harm to another, the two kinds of value do not torture the animals eat... As farm animals and patients a story about this to show that normal! Not fall within the same cognitive capacities Dershowitz: Should the norcross moral patients Bomb Terrorist be Tortured ’...

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